Common Names: Eastern black walnut
Black walnut is highly prized for its dark-colored true heartwood. It is heavy and strong, yet easily split and worked. Walnut wood has historically been used for gunstocks, furniture, flooring, paddles, coffins, and a variety of other woodworking products. Height 30 to 40 m. Under forest competition, it develops a tall and straight trunk. When grown in an open area it has a short trunk and broad crown. Most parts of the tree including leaves, stems, and fruit husks have a very characteristic pungent or spicy odor. This odor is lacking in the nut itself. The bark is typically grey-black and deeply furrowed into thin ridges which gives the bark a diamond shaped pattern. The leaves are compound and alternately arranged on the stem. They are 30 to 60 cm long, typically even-pinnate but there is heavy variation among leaves. The stems have 15 to 23 leaflets, with the largest leaflets located in the center, 7 to 10 cm long and 2 to 3 cm broad. The leaflets have a rounded base and a long pointed (acuminate) tip as well as having a serrated edge. The leaves are overall dark green in color and are typically hairy on the underside. The fruit ripens during the autumn into a fruit (nut) with a brownish-green, semifleshy husk and a brown, corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk falls in October or November; the seed is relatively small and very hard.
Found in mixed and deciduous forests, sometimes used as an ornamental tree in landscaping.