Common Names: Eastern hemlock, eastern hemlock-spruce, Canadian hemlock
The eastern hemlock grows well in shade and is very long lived. The tree generally reaches heights of about 31 meters. The diameter of the trunk at breast height is typically 1.5 meters. The trunk is usually straight and monopodial, but very rarely is forked. The crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and deeply fissured, especially with age. The twigs are a yellow-brown in color with darker red-brown pulvini, and are densely pubescent. The buds are ovoid in shape and are very small. The leaves are typically 15 to 20 mm in length. They are flattened and are typically distichous, or two-ranked. The bottom of the leaf is glaucous with two broad and clearly visible stomatal bands, while the top is a shiny green to yellow-green in color. The leaf margins are very slightly toothed, especially near the apex. The seed cones are ovoid in shape and typically measure 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length and 1 to 1.5 cm in width. The scales are ovate to cuneate in shape and measure 8 to 12 mm in length by 7 to 10 mm in width. The apex is more or less rounded and is often projected outward.