The plant kingdom includes flowering plants, trees, ferns and mosses; however this website currently limits the category to flowering plants and ferns. Plants have cell walls with cellulose and characteristically obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll; however there are a few exceptions in which some parasitic plants have no chlorophyll at all. Many plants also produce flowers and seeds for reproduction.
Plants play an important role in supporting life on Earth. They breathe carbon dioxide and expel oxygen, which is necessary for the survival of all animals, including humans. They are also a food source for most of living things on Earth, but in the fruits and vegetables they produce, as wells as the products of their decay which are a necessary food source for bacteria and even other plants.
Connecticut has a great diversity of plants, many of which are edible and quite a few that are dangerous or poisonous. Edible plants include wild raspberries, blueberries and blackberries in the summer, as well as wild strawberries in the spring. Perhaps most commonly recognized plant in Connecticut is the toxic and blister-causing poison ivy, which is extremely abundant in the state. Children learn about this plant at an early age using the mnemonic 'Leaves of three, let it be.'
Browse by All Plants by Flower Color
Common Name: Yarrow
Yarrow has also been used as a food or in teas, and was very popular as a vegetable in the 17th century. The younger leaves are said to be a pleasant leaf vegetable when cooked like spinach, or in a soup. Yarrow is sweet with a slight bitter taste. The leaves can also be dried and used as an herb in cooking. In the Middle A... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Blue bugle
The young shoots are reported to be edible and can be eaten in salads or sautéed. Young leaves are also edible; use in salads, teas, casseroles, etc.
Common Name: Garlic mustard
Garlic mustard is one of the oldest discovered spices to be used in cooking in Europe. The chopped leaves are used for flavoring in salads and sauces such as pesto, and sometimes the flowers and fruit are included as well. These are best when young, and provide a mild flavor of both garlic and mustard.
Common Name: Ramps
Ramps are an excellent wild edible. Both the leaves and bulb are edible and they can be cooked in the same way as scallions or shallots or eaten raw. Often found growing in abundance, these are an important wild edible to know for survival. Ramps are best harvested in late April or early May, after the leaves have a chance... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Wild garlic
While Allium vineale has been suggested as a substitute for garlic, it has an unpleasant aftertaste compared to that of garlic itself.
Common Name: Porcelain berry
Porcelain berries are reported to be edible raw or cooked, though they are described as not very palatable. The vine's leaf buds, leaves and stems are also reported to be edible when cooked.
Common Name: Western pearly everlasting
The leaves and young plant are edible when cooked.
Common Name: False sarsaparilla
The berries are edible and taste a little spicy and sweet. The root has been used as a substitute for true Sarsaparilla.
Common Name: Greater burdock
Burdock root is a common vegetable in Japan. It can be eaten cooked, raw and used as a flavor in British soda. Look for Dandelion and Burdock soda in gourmet and natural food stores. Also, look for fresh burdock root in the produce isle of many supermarkets and gourmet food stores. Immature flower stalks may also be harve... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Jack-in-the-pulpit
If the plant is properly dried or cooked it can be eaten as a root vegetable. However due to the presence of oxalic acid, this one is not recommended.
Common Name: Mugwort
The leaves and buds, best picked shortly before the plant flowers in July to September, were used as a bitter flavoring agent to season fat, meat and fish. It has also been used to flavor beer before the introduction of or instead of hops.
Common Name: Common milkweed
The plant's latex contains large quantities of glycosides, making the leaves and follicles toxic to sheep and other large mammals, and potentially humans (though large quantities of the foul-tasting parts would need to be eaten). The young shoots, young leaves, flower buds and immature fruits are all edible raw. It is ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Japanese barberry
The red berries are considered edible, but reported to be very bitter/astringent. Some reports suggest that the fruits may be a good source of Vitamin C. The leaves are reported to be edible if cooked or when young. Due to the bitter flavor and danger of the thorns, this plant is probably best avoided. Warnings!
Common Name: Devil's beggarticks
The leaves have been reported to be edible, however there is not much information available. Not recommended.
Common Name: Rape
There are various widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed used to produce canola oil. Most wild plants would generally not be considered very palatable. Special cultivars are produ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Marsh-marigold
Early spring greens and buds are edible when cooked. Young leaves or buds should be submerged a few times in fresh boiling water until barely tender, cut into bite-sized pieces, lightly salted, and served with melted butter and vinegar. Very young flowerbuds have been prepared like capers and used as a spice. However, Calth... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Large camass
Some sources suggest that the root/bulb may be edible when cooked, however there is not a lot of information available. Not recommended.
Common Name: Creeping bellflower
The leaves, shoots and roots of this plant are reported to be edible. Not a lot of information is available regarding safety, flavor or preparation, so it is not recommended.
Common Name: Bulbous bittercress
The leaves and young buds are edible raw and the root can be grated and used as a horseradish substitute.
Common Name: Toothwort
The ground root of which is mixed with vinegar by the Algonquin people of Quebec and used as a relish. The Abenaki use it as a condiment. The Cherokee parboil and rinse the stems and leaves, add hot grease, salt & water & boiled them until they are soft as potherbs. They also use the leaves in salads, and smoke the ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Cornflower
The young shoots are reported to be edible. Flowers are edible, raw or cooked. The fresh florets are used as a vegetable or a garnish and can be used in salads. An edible blue dye is obtained from the flowers, used for coloring sugar and confections.
Common Name: Sticky mouse-ear chickweed
The leaves and shoots are edible, raw or cooked, but have been reported to be a bit stringy and difficult to chew.
Common Name: White turtlehead
Not edible. It has been used as a method of birth control by Abenaki people.
Common Name: Lamb's quarters
The leaves and young shoots may be eaten as a leaf vegetable, either steamed in its entirety, or cooked like spinach, but should be eaten in moderation due to high levels of oxalic acid. Each plant produces tens of thousands of black seeds. These are high in protein, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Quinoa is ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Chicory
Various varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, known as endive and radicchio, or for the roots, which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive. Wild chicory leaves are usually bitter and unpleasant. By cooking and discarding the water the bitterness is reduced, after which the chicory leaves may... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Creeping thistle
Like other Cirsium species, the roots are edible, though rarely used, not least due to their propensity to induce flatulence in some people. The taproot is considered the most nutritious. The leaves are also edible, though the spines make their preparation for food too tedious to be worth eating. The stalks, however, are al... [READ MORE] Warnings!
Common Name: Field thistle
The leaves can be boiled to wilt the spines. The root and stalk are edible the first year. Look for thistle tea in natural food stores. Warnings!
Common Name: Bull thistle
The root is edible when cooked. It can be dried and stored for later use. The root is rich in starches that cannot be digested by humans and can cause digestive upset or gas. Young flower stems can be cooked and used as a vegetable. Young leaves can be soaked overnight in salt water and then cooked and eaten. Prickles nee... [READ MORE] Warnings!
Common Name: Eastern spring beauty
Spring beauty corms along with the entire above ground portion of the plant are reported to be edible and have been consumed by native Americans.
Common Name: Asiatic dayflower
In China and India the plant has been used as a vegetable. No information on preparation or concerns at this time, so not recommended.
Common Name: Sweetfern
The aromatic leaves (fresh or dried) are also used to make a tea. The plant has also been used as a seasoning.
Common Name: Squash
As a cultivated plant, squashes and pumpkins are generally edible and widely available in supermarkets. Squash flowers are also edible and a rare delicacy when in season. Pumpkin seeds are edible and widely available in supermarkets.
Common Name: Queen Anne's lace
Like the cultivated carrot, the wild carrot root is edible while young, but quickly becomes too woody to consume. Warnings!
Common Name: Mock strawberry
The fruits are edible, though unpleasant and lacking taste.
Common Name: Eastern purple coneflower
Echinacea is commonly used as a herbal supplement in both pill and tea form for medicinal purposes. While not considered a subsistence edible, it is widely consumed.
Common Name: Common horsetail
The buds are eaten as a vegetable in Japan and Korea in spring time. All other Equisetum species are toxic. In polluted conditions, it may synthesize nicotine rendering it toxic as well. Generally not recommended.
Common Name: Trout lily
Reports of edibility are varied, so it's probably best avoided. Some websites caution that other members of this genus are known to be toxic and that trout lily may cause contact dermatitis in some people. One report suggests 'all parts of the plant, but especially the bulb and the fresh leaves, are strongly eme... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Japanese knotweed
The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavor similar to mild rhubarb. Some caution should be exercised when consuming this plant because it contains oxalic acid, which may aggravate conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity. Do not consume from waste areas or roadsides ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Fennel
Fennel is widely cultivated for its edible, strongly flavored leaves, stems, and seeds. It is an important component for making the alcoholic beverage absinthe. Fennel is widely available in supermarkets as a fresh vegetable or the seeds in the spices section. Liquor stores in Connecticut now often carry absinthe, which us... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Virginia strawberry
An ancestor of the common, domesticated strawberry. Berries are edible, sweet, and taste like the domesticated strawberry, only smaller. Strawberries are widely available in supermarkets.
Common Name: Fringed quickweed
The leaves are edible raw or cooked. Care must be taken to not confuse them with the unrelated, but visually similar Tridax procumbens which is poisonous.
Common Name: Yellow bedstraw
Not not eaten like a vegetable, it does have a few culinary uses: The flowers were used to coagulate milk in cheese manufacture and, in Gloucestershire, to color the cheese double Gloucester. In Denmark, the plant (known locally as gul snerre) is traditionally used to infuse spirits, making the uniquely Danish drink bjæsk.
Common Name: Eastern teaberry
The fruits are considered its actual "teaberries", are edible, with a taste of mildly sweet wintergreen. The leaves and branches make a fine herbal tea, through normal drying and infusion process. For the leaves to yield significant amounts of their essential oil, they need to be fermented for at least three days.... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Ground-ivy
The fresh herb can be rinsed and steeped in hot water to create an herbal tea which is rich in vitamin C. It has a distinctive, mildly peppery flavor; it can be cooked as a pot herb, although it is most commonly eaten as a fresh salad green. It has also historically been used as a hop substitute in brewing beer and as a ren... [READ MORE] Warnings!
Common Name: Sunflower
Sunflower seeds are edible and commonly eaten. As is the the oil that is made from the seeds. Both are widely available in most supermarkets.
Common Name: Jerusalem artichoke
The tuber have been historically used a food source by native Americans. They have also seen recent resurgence as a food crop marketed as a "sunchoke". They can be cooked like a potato or even eaten raw if sliced thin. They are fairly high in fiber (inulin) so they may cause gas and bloating. Commonly found in sp... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Orange day-lily
The flowers are reported to be edible. There is however a risk of contaminants from pesticides due to how they are used in landscaping.
Common Name: Dame's rocket
The plant and flowers are edible, but fairly bitter. Not generally recommended.
Common Name: Chinese hibiscus
Flowers are edible and have a tart flavor. You can sometimes find Hibiscus tea, juice blends, or other Hibiscus flavored products in Connecticut specialty food stores such as Trader Joes.
Common Name: Densa inkberry holly
Dried and roasted inkberry leaves were first used by Native Americans to brew a black tea-like drink, hence the sometimes used common name of Appalachian tea for this shrub.
Common Name: Whitestar
Ipomoea lacunosa is one of the few species of Ipomoea that is used on a small scale by humans. The whitestar potato that it produces is traditionally consumed by a number of Native American tribes like the Chiricahua Apaches. Please note that processing (boiling, drying, leaching, etc...) may be necessary to render it edibl... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Henbit
The leaves, stem, and flowers of the plant are edible and have a slightly sweet and peppery flavor, similar to celery. Henbit can be eaten raw or cooked.
Common Name: Purple dead-nettle
Young plants have edible tops and leaves, good in salads or in stirfry as a spring vegetable. If finely chopped it can also be used in sauces, but there is little to recommend about its flavor.
Common Name: Beach pea
The seed is said to be somewhat safe, however they can cause serious illness if eaten in large quantities. The seeds are supposed to be very nutritious, but should not comprise more than 30% of the diet. Because of the danger of poisoning from over-consumption, it is not recommended. The seed contains a toxic amino-acid w... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Ox-eye daisy
The unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers. Grieve's Modern Herbal (1931) states that "The taste of the dried herb is bitter and tingling, and the odour faintly resembles that of valerian."
Common Name: American tiger lily
The roots were a food source for Native Americans. No information at this time on preparation methods.
Common Name: Oregon grape
The small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain large seeds, are included in smaller quantities in the traditional diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, mixed with Salal or another sweeter fruit. Today they are sometimes used to make jelly, alone or mixed with salal. Oregon grape juice can be ferm... [READ MORE]
Common Name: False Solomon's seal
Although they were once prepared and eaten by native Americans, their use as a wild edible is strongly discouraged as they are somewhat toxic, bitter, stringy and a strong laxative if not properly prepared. There is also a risk of misidentification with similar looking Veratrum species which are highly toxic. Not recommende... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Pineappleweed
They are edible and have been used in salads (although they may become bitter by the time the plant blooms) and to make herbal tea.
Common Name: Indian cucumber
This plant produces a crisp, edible tuber that smells and tastes like garden cucumber.
Common Name: Lemon balm
Lemon balm is often used as a flavoring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or candies. It can be used in fish dishes and is the key ingredient in lemon balm pesto.
Common Name: Partridge berry
The ripe red berries are starchy and edible but do not have much flavor.
Common Name: Indian pipe
The aerial parts of the plant can be eaten raw or cooked. When eaten raw, the plant has a bland taste, but when it is cooked, the plant tastes a bit like asparagus. I would caution eating this plant in anything but small amounts, as it contains a glycoside which can be poisonous if eaten in quantity.
Common Name: Cicely
Its leaves are sometimes used as a herb, either raw or cooked, with a rather strong taste reminiscent of anise. The roots and seeds also are edible.
Common Name: Catnip
Can be dried and consumed as a tea. May have a sedative, hypnotic or tonic effect on humans.
Common Name: Yellow water-lily
The seeds are edible, and can be ground into flour. The root is edible too, but can prove to be incredibly bitter in some plants.
Common Name: Fragrant water-lily
The seeds, leaves, flowers and rhizomes can all be eaten.
Common Name: Common evening-primrose
Virtually all parts of the plant are edible. The roots can be eaten raw or cooked like potatoes. The leaves of the evening primrose can be used from April to June when the plant is not flowering yet. They can be eaten raw in salads or cooked like spinach or in soups. The flowering stems are preferably used when they are sti... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Eastern prickly pear
The ripe red fruits are juicy and edible. Prickly pear fruits (of the O. ficus-indica species) are commonly available in supermarkets. Warnings!
Common Name: Aniseroot
The plant has a distinct licorice flavor and the root, flowers, leaves and young stems, and seeds (pretty much the entire plant) are reported to be edible, both raw and cooked. However, there is a very large risk of misidentification with the deadly poisonous hemlock plant and should be avoided by amateur foragers. Poisonou... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Cinnamon fern
The young fiddlehead shoots may be edible if consumed in small amounts, however they may be slightly toxic and are not recommended. Look for Ostrich Fern (Matteucia struthiopteris) species fiddleheads which can be found in gourmet and specialty food stores in springtime as a close approximation. Sources: Balducci's, Wh... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Common yellow woodsorrel
All parts of the plant are edible, with a distinct tangy flavor. However, it should only be eaten in small quantities, since oxalic acid can bind up the body's supply of calcium.
Common Name: Green arrow arum
Native Americans used most parts of the plant for food, however, cooking it for hours first to make it safe to eat. Not recommended. The raw, unprocessed plant contains calcium oxalate crystals, making it unpalatable.
Common Name: Shisho
Its leaves are used as foods in Southern China, Japan and Korea and its seeds are used to make edible oil in Korea. Sometimes, the seeds are ground and added to soup for seasoning in Korea. It has also been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than two thousand years. There are red and green perilla. The red peril... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Common reed
Numerous parts of Phragmites can be prepared for consumption. For example, the young stems, while still green and fleshy, can be dried and pounded into a fine powder, which when moistened is roasted and eaten. Also, the wheat-like seeds on the apex of the stems can be ground into flour or made into gruel. Rootstocks are us... [READ MORE]
Common Name: American pokeweed
Although the seeds are highly toxic, the berries are often cooked into a jelly or pie, and seeds are strained out or pass through unless bitten. Cooking is believed to inactivate toxins in the berries by some and others attribute toxicity to the seeds within the berries. The leaves of young plants are sometimes collected as... [READ MORE] Warnings!
Common Name: Narrowleaf plantain
Young leaves in the center are edible raw and have a slight salty, bitter flavor. Overall, most reports are that the flavor is unpleasant and this plant should only be considered in survival situation. Overall not recommended for consumption due to the flavor and risk of herbicides and weed-killers that are toxic.
Common Name: Mayapple
All the parts of the plant are poisonous, including the green fruit, but once the fruit has turned yellow, it can be safely eaten with the seeds removed. Due to the general toxicity of the plant, it is strongly not recommended. Warnings!
Common Name: Smooth Solomon's-seal
Historically, the Native Americans consumed the starch-rich rhizomes of smooth Solomon's-seal as a “potato-like food” used to make breads and soups. The young shoots are also edible, raw or boiled for an asparagus-like food.
Common Name: Common purslane
Perhaps one of Connecticut's most important wild edibles for survival since is grows in abundance and is an excellent source of nutrients. Purslane contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable plant. It also contains vitamins (mainly vitamin A, vitamin C, and some vitamin B and carotenoids), as wel... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Common cinquefoil
Young shoots and leaves are edible as a salad or pot herb.
Common Name: Common self-heal
Self-heal is edible: the young leaves and stems can be eaten raw in salads; the plant in whole can be boiled and eaten as a potherb; and the aerial parts of the plant can be powdered and brewed in a cold infusion to make a beverage.
Common Name: Red currant
The berries are edible, sweet, and sour when ripe. They are commonly used for making jams/jellies, juice, and flavorings.
Common Name: Multiflora rose
The rose hips are edible, tart, and good for making tea or jellies. Warnings!
Common Name: Japanese rose
The rose hips, or fruits, are edible and contain a lot of Vitamin C. They can be dried and used to make tea or processed into jams. Warnings!
Common Name: Common dewberry
The berry is edible and with a tart-sweet flavor. Probably better for making jams and jellies than eating fresh. Warnings!
Common Name: Blackberry
Blackberries are edible and commonly available in supermarkets. Warnings!
Common Name: Black raspberry
The ripe berries are edible, sweet, a bit tart, and flavorful. Warnings!
Common Name: Wineberry
Like raspberries, the wineberry is edible, sweet, and tart. Warnings!
Common Name: American red raspberry
The berries are edible, sweet, and tart and commonly available in supermarkets. Warnings!
Common Name: Sheep's sorrel
There are several uses of sheep sorrel in the preparation of food including a garnish, a tart flavoring agent, a salad green, and a curdling agent for cheese. The leaves have a lemony, tangy or nicely tart flavor. Because of the presence of oxalic acid, it should only be consumed in small quantities.
Common Name: Broadleaf arrowhead
This plant produces edible tubers that were extensively used by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas. It is reported that they can be eaten both raw and cooked and the flavor is comparable to potatoes and chestnuts. Other edible parts include late summer buds and fruits.
Common Name: Canadian burnet
Reported to be edible. The leaves must be cooked to be eaten, in order to remove the bitterness.
Common Name: Stringy stonecrop
Young leaves and stems are reported to be edible when raw or cooked, however sources caution that eating large quantities of this plant may cause an upset stomach.
Common Name: Cup plant
During the spring, the tender young leaves were cultivated by native Americans as an acceptable food source by cooking or a salad. It has along history of medicinal use as well as a chewing gum made from the natural resin.
Common Name: Common greenbrier
The young shoots of common greenbriar are reported to be excellent when cooked like asparagus. The young leaves and tendrils can be prepared like spinach or added directly to salads. The roots have natural gelling agent in them that can be extracted and used as a thickening agent. Warnings!
Common Name: European black nightshade
In various parts of the world, the berries are occasionally grown and eaten, but not cultivated for commercial use. In India the berries are referred to as 'fragrant tomato'. Leaves can be cooked in multiple changes of salted water an eaten as a vegetable. Not recommended. Warnings!
Common Name: Prickly sow-thistle
Like the dandelion, it's leaves are reported to be edible, though some people may have a bad reaction to it. Not recommended. Warnings!
Common Name: Lamb's-ear
In Brazil it is used as a edible herb, called Lambari.
Common Name: Eastern skunk cabbage
While not considered edible raw, because the roots are toxic and the leaves can burn the mouth, the leaves may be dried and used in soups and stews.
Common Name: French marigold
The dried and ground flower petals constitute a popular spice in the Republic of Georgia in the Caucasus, where they are known as imeruli shaphrani (= 'Imeretian Saffron') from their pungency and golden color and particular popularity in the Western province of Imereti. The spice imparts a unique, rather earthy fl... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Common dandelion
Young leaves and flowers are edible and used in salads. The young flower buds can be dipped in batter and fried. Dandelion is used as a flavoring for British soda. Can be found in some gourmet food stores as Fentimans Dandelion & Burdock soda. Dandelion greens are sometimes available fresh in the produce section of so... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Red clover
The leaves, flowers, seeds, and roots of clovers are all edible. The young leaves, taken before the plant flowers, can be eaten raw in salads. As the plant matures, cooking the leaves is recommended. The roots should be eaten cooked. The flowers and seeds are the parts of the clover that are of greatest interest to most ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: White clover
Clovers are a valuable survival food: they are high in proteins, widespread, and abundant. The fresh plants have been used for centuries as additives to salads and other meals consisting of leafy vegetables. They are not easy for humans to digest raw, however, but this is easily fixed by boiling the harvested plants for 5 ... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Tulip
Various sources list the flowers (petals) as edible however the bulbs are reported to be poisonous.
Common Name: Common cattail
The rhizomes of Typha latifolia were eaten by many first peoples of North America, as well as the leaf bases and young flower spikes. The rhizomes can be consumed after cooking and removing the skin, while the peeled stems and leaf bases can be eaten raw or cooked. While Typha latifolia grows all over, including in rural a... [READ MORE]
Common Name: Stinging nettle
Despite the stinging hairs, the plant is a good wild edible, as the leaves can be eaten or made into a tea if properly cooked and prepared to remove the stinging hairs. Stinging nettle has a flavor similar to spinach and cucumber when cooked and is rich in vitamins A, C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. In its peak... [READ MORE] Warnings!
Common Name: Northern highbush blueberry
Berries are edible and delicious when ripe. Look for frozen or dried wild blueberries in supermarkets and gourmet food stores.
Common Name: Common blue violet
Viola sororia has historically been used for food and for medicine. The flowers and leaves are edible, and some sources suggest the roots can also be eaten. As an alternative, look for violet flavored products in specialty stores, such as candied violet flowers, or C. Howard's Violet Candy and Violet gum.
Common Name: Common grape vine
Fruits are edible and commonly available in supermarkets or as wine in liquor stores. There are many grape products available including grape juice, grape jelly, and raisins. Leaves are used in Mediterranean cooking.
Common Name: Corn
Sweet corn kernels are well known to be edible and is a major agricultural product in the United States. Commonly found in supermarkets.
Common Name: Golden alexanders
There is some conflicting information about edibility. Some sources suggest that the plant may be toxic, or only parts of it, such as the roots. One report says that the flower clusters are edible raw and cooked and that the stem is edible (like celery).