Common Names: Merlin, pigeon hawk
Sub-category: Caracaras & Falcons
Compared to most other small falcons, it is more robust and heavily built. The male merlin has a blue-grey back, ranging from almost black to silver-grey in different subspecies. Its underparts are buff- to orange-tinted and more or less heavily streaked with black to reddish brown. The female and immature are brownish-grey to dark brown above, and whitish buff spotted with brown below. Besides a weak whitish supercilium and the faint dark malar stripe-which are barely recognizable in both the palest and the darkest birds-the face of the merlin is less strongly patterned than in most other falcons. The remiges are blackish, and the tail usually has some 3 to 4 wide blackish bands, too. Very light males only have faint and narrow medium-grey bands, while in the darkest birds the bands are very wide, so that the tail appears to have narrow lighter bands instead. In all of them, however, the tail tip is black with a narrow white band at the very end. The eye and beak are dark, the latter with a yellow cere. The feet are also yellow, with black claws.
Merlins inhabit fairly open country, such as willow or birch scrub, shrubland, but also taiga forest, parks, grassland such as steppe and prairies, or moorland. They are not very habitat-specific and can be found from sea level to the treeline. In general, they prefer a mix of low and medium-height vegetation with some trees, and avoid dense forests as well as treeless arid regions. During migration however, they will utilize almost any habitat.